Apple is a fruit that is a hardy, deciduous woody perennial that grows in all temperate regions. It can grow 10 to 30 feet tall and almost as wide. It grows moderately fast, but growth slows down with age. Apple trees may exist for 100 years or more. These trees bloom, bear fruit in early spring, and take 100 to 200 days to harvest, depending on the variety.
Apple fruit thrives best where winter is cold, with moderate summer temperatures and moderate to high humidity. There are apples for eating fresh, some for cooking, and some for preserving. Among the apples, some are sweet, and some are pungent. Some apple fruits are harvested in summer, some apples in autumn.
Choosing the Right Apple for Your Garden
- There are about 10,000 varieties of apples. About 7,000 cultivars grow in North America. However, farmers only grow about 1,000 varieties commercially or in home gardens.
- Contact your nearest cooperative extension service or nearest garden center to find out which varieties grow well in your area.
- When choosing apples for planting, consider how do you want to eat your apples; Some varieties are meant to be eaten fresh, some for cooking, and some for preserving.
- You should know the time period when the fruit will be harvested such as some apples you can ripe in mid-summer, some in late summer, and some in autumn.
- Check to see if the apple fruit you want to grow needs a pollinator; Many varieties require a pollinator. You may have to plant two or more trees to get fruit.
- Examine the rootstock of the apples you want to grow; Some rootstocks are suitable for cold regions, some tolerate wet soil, some withstand drought, some are dwarf or semi-dwarf. Nurseries or growers can tell you whether the rootstock is a good fit for your garden and needs.
- Some apple varieties are “sports” of another variety or and others are bred – apple fruit breeders create them through cross selection. Unfortunately, not every sport is productive and capable of growing.
Process of Apple Cultivation in India
Apple farming is the most popular farming worldwide. Generally, all the people know about this fruit in India, and every farmer should have knowledge about processing of cultivation. Before knowing the cultivation procedure, farmers should know the essential factor in farming, such as which equipment is most usable in this cultivation. The tractor is the essential segment in farming. And the farmers usually use the Eicher 548 tractor in apple cultivation in India. Here we are describing the apple cultivation process.
Best Climate and Site for Growing Apples
- Apple fruits grow in zones 3 to 9. Some apples can tolerate winter temperatures as low as -40°F. Choose an apple tree suitable for the winter temperatures.
- Apple fruit plants do not thrive well close to the sea, where temperatures are average for most of the year.
- This fruit grows best in full sun. Therefore, farmers who plant an apple tree in partial sunlight will not produce the same fruit as an apple planted in full sun.
- Apples grow best in loamy soil with good drainage, although they grow in more sandy soils.
- Apples grow best in a neutral pH of 6.0 to 7.0.
- Protect the apple from the prevailing wind or wind. Avoid planting apples in low places where cold air or frost can accumulate.
- Late spring frosts can kill apple blossoms. Apple fruits bloom in late spring, followed by peaches, cherries, and almonds. Early fall frosts can damage the fruit. Choose an apple fruit variety that is suitable for your growing region.
- Avoid planting in the same place where apple fruit has been previously grown. Diseases and Pests that attack apple trees can still live in the soil.
- Most apple varieties have flowers that contain female and male parts and are therefore self-pollinate. Therefore, these apple trees will produce fruit without cross-pollination. However, some apple varieties are self-infertile and require pollination.
- Even self-pollinating trees can have better fruit sets when cross-pollinated.
- Farmers can pollinate apples from bees and insects or pollen floating in the wind.
- Plant the apple tree within 40 – 50 feet of another apple tree blooming simultaneously, or graft a branch from a pollinator onto your tree.
- Flowers that are only partially pollinated have prematurely falling fruit.
Apple Pollination Groups
Not all the apple trees bloom at the same time; some in early to mid-spring; Some flower in early spring, some in late mid-spring, and others in late spring. Apples are classified into three flower clusters- A, B, C; The apples in each group flower simultaneously. Plant two or more apples in the same group to ensure pollination, even if an apple is self-fertile. Some can flower at the same time as an apple in a simultaneously pollinated group.
- A Group flowers in early spring and consists of cultivars: Gravenstein, Egremont Russet, Idared.
- B Group flowers in mid-spring and cultivars include Granny Smith, Honeycrisp, Jonagold, Cortland, Cox, Baldwin, Braburn, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Rome Beauty.
- C Group flowers in late spring and cultivars include Edward VII, Court Pendu Plat, Mother, Sheepnose.
Apple farming operations require reliable equipment for every Indian farmer; Hence, we suggest the Eicher 333 tractor, which is frequently used in farming.
For more information regarding the apple farming Business or any other farming, stay tuned with us.